Alabama disenfranchised voters by using partisan gerrymandering to draw district lines. As illustrated by the maps above, gerrymandering divided voters into districts of extreme partisanship. Alabama ranked #1 out of 50 states in the use of partisan gerrymandering techniques like packing & cracking, and the result was a House that's the #1 most skewed between the voting results and the voters, which federal courts found to be in violation of US citizens' constitutional rights. Alabama also has some of the least compact districts in the country. Compactness is a key factor in determining the extent of partisan gerrymandering.